The Request Lifecycle

When adding a new backend request I've found the following list a fairly common sequence of steps I should take care of:

  1. Request
  2. Routing
  3. Authentication
  4. Authorization
  5. Deserialize payload
  6. Request validation
  7. Retrieve domain objects
  8. Business rules
  9. Side effects
  10. Response

The order of these steps vary and not all steps apply to each type of request, nevertheless this list has served me as a good checklist in the past.

In this blog I'll walk through these steps and share some learnings I've had along the way.

1. Request #

Discussing all variety of requests is a blogpost in itself, instead I'll quickly go through the protocols and API-styles I've used or experimented with:

  1. REST / JSON. Used for most API's these days and relies on the fundamental principles of HTTP. I'll assume you are already familiar with REST / JSON APIs.

    Despite its popularity I've come across few small-scale REST API's that are designed well, most struggling to reach beyond level 1 on the Richardson Maturity Model (I should note, I'm not a fan of level 3 myself). This is not surprising because REST is generally poorly understood nor does it enforce correctness in any way, something I struggled with in the past as well. Crafting a well-designed API in REST is surprisingly challenging; not technically but more in terms of best practices and convincing your team to follow suite.

  2. gRPC / Protobufs. gRPC is a binary RPC protocol over HTTP/2 that is more efficient compared to REST / JSON over HTTP. It relies on protobufs which requires you to specify an API as follows:

    message Person {
    string name = 1;
    int32 id = 2;
    string email = 3;

    message AddressBook {
    repeated Person people = 1;

    service AccountService {
    rpc GetAddressBook () returns (AddressBook) {}

    Using this specification you then generate your client and server code (the stubs) using a code generation tool.

    For a long time gRPC was only available as a backend technology and thus limited to service-to-service communication. As of October 2018 gRPC-Web became public which enables JavaScript-based frontend gRPC communication; so you should be able to build gRPC-based web services as well now.

    Compared to JSON/REST gRPC is said to be significantly more performant, from 6 times faster to 10 times faster for similar tasks. When developing chatty microservices the overall performance gain could be quite significant.

    It's main drawbacks for me is it's not easy to inspect message payload and it is more difficult to setup a client.

  3. GraphQL. GraphQL enables clients to query exactly the data they need and nothing more. This in contrast to REST and RPC which return (usually) pre-defined sets of data and may require multiple requests for the same use case.

    So far my experiences with GraphQL have been mixed. It adds a great deal of complexity both client and server compared to REST and RPC. Clients require a fairly complex query-access layer. Within the server authentication, caching and performance become non-trivial because of query flexibility.

    The GraphQL ecosystem is thriving and offers solutions for these problems, but it may take some effort before you get it right.

    For now I'm set on using GraphQL only when I encounter a use case in need of a flexible API. Thus far I've not found a good excuse for it yet; creating a user, resetting a password, changing a subscription, adding a product to a shopping cart, fullfilling a payment; these types of requests are likely easier to implement in a traditional REST or RPC API. Use cases where I'd consider GraphQL include querying a movie-catalog, product database or crawling a social network.

  4. Messaging protocols. Messaging protocols enable asynchronous communication by having both the client and server communicate through an intermediary. Messages are delivered to the intermediary and consumed by the receiver shortly thereafter. Email is an example. Messaging allows decoupling services and is often more reliable and predictable compared to REST and RPC.

    Various standardized protocols are available for server-to-service communication; AMQP and MQTT I've used in the past. These days I usually go for a proprietary cloud service with non-standard protocols (AWS SQS/SNS or Google PubSub) because they offer high reliability, low maintenance and are very cheap.

    When you do not need extra reliability but simply want a decoupled, efficient high-throughput messaging protocol memory-based pubsub services are an alternative, e.g. Redis or NATS (haven't used NATS yet, but looks interesting).

  5. Websockets. Websockets provide two-way communication between client and server and are commonly used when real-time updates are needed. Because Websockets are long-lived and have server state they work well with an in-memory pubsub protocol in the backend (e.g. Redis or NATS).

    Because WebSockets are a trickier to setup I have frequently resorted to simple polling over HTTP instead. Often it's not worth it adding an extra protocol for one or two requests.

  6. SOAP / XML. SOAP / XML was a popular protocol before REST and JSON became prominent. While some companies still use SOAP and XML it's not common for a greenfield project. Having worked with it for years during my Java-days; I wouldn't recommend using it. REST / JSON is a more flexible, readable and simpler API compared to the WSDLs, XSDs, XML and dozens of WS* standards.

    Having said that, when compared to REST / JSON I do miss some qualities of WSDLs and XSDs. The overhead of Swagger/OpenAPI, the variety of API styles (JSON:API, JSON-LD, HAL to name a few) and the dozens of best practice blogs I've read in the past showcase what makes REST / JSON so tricky: a lack of structure. GraphQL and gRPC have fixed this problem the last couple of years by offering an alternative to REST.

Which protocol to use strongly depends on your use case and business context. It's best to stick to only one or two different protocols for your system; tools, best practices, system behaviour, documentation, logging and testing all tend to be different for each protocol.

Because REST/JSON is the most common I'll use that as an example in the rest of this blog.

Later in the Response-section I'll discuss some other topics that apply to the Request as well.

2. Routing #

The application receiving a request makes it available in some form of a Request object. Either you the programmer or the framework you're using determines which pieces of code will receive and process this request object and return a response. This receiver is usually a Controller or RequestHandler.

The choice of using either a Controller or a RequestHandler is an architectural decision for your codebase.

RequestHandlers tend to process a single type of request fully and only delegate where applicable. Controllers however delegate as much as possible and focus on the interaction of subsystems. Usually a single controller fulfills several requests (e.g. all GET, DELETE and POST /users requests).

I've come to favour RequestHandlers for most use cases because I feel there is little coupling between different types of requests for the same resource. Consider:

The main thing these two endpoints share is the response format, but nothing else. From a code-perspective these two endpoints together are not a meaninigful unit. As your controller grows (which they tend to do), consider splitting this up into separate request handlers.

Right now I tend to create a separate file for each request handler, e.g. get_user.xy and post_user.xy and organize reusable code as I see fit. This is a simple basic approach that scales out well.

3. Authentication #

In an HTTP request authentication information is usually stored in a Cookie or Authorization-header. There are many ways to identify a client but they all include some identifier that uniquely identifies the client or session.

Validating these tokens is fairly simple; either the token is invalid and an unauthorized-error is returned; or the token is valid and session details are added to the request context.

Job done. Authentication is only concerned with identitying the user/subject but should not make any claims whether he is authorized.

Because authentication-handling logic is very similar across all your backend endpoints it is usually performed before anything else within middleware, a decorator or request interceptor. It is a cross-cutting concern. Some challenges with such a global setup are:

I've come across a codebase that had 4 types of authentication and used various lists to white- and blacklist endpoints for each authentication method. It was terribly difficult to work out which authentication methods actually applied to an individual request handler.

In such scenarios it is better to treat authentication not as a cross-cutting concern but as part of the request handler itself (i.e. after routing). This might cause some boilerplate but the reverse is much worse: magic.

4. Authorization #

Authorization is arguably one of the most difficult topics and can wreak havoc on your code organization because of its inherit complexity in a growing system.

Imagine the following request:

// POST /articles HTTP/1.1
// Host: example.com
// Content-type: application/json
// Authorization: Bearer 94a1f626d174

"title": "No hipsters here",
"content": "La croix scenester PBR&B drinking vinegar YOLO austin. I'm an Etsy master",
"status": "DRAFT"

For this POST /articles-request we could start with a simple role-based mechanism where users with role = "WRITER" are allowed to execute POST /articles-requests. A simple check if request.user.roles.includes("WRITER") would be sufficient. Job done.

Now imagine the following use cases:

With such requirements a basic role based mechanism quickly breaks down, and attribute-based access control and/or ACL come into play.

You can try to keep authorization as a single step within the request-lifecycle but it is common for evolving systems to start spreading around their authorization logic across various steps.

Try to get a good idea about your security requirements before you start and consider the available options within your framework and ecosystem (you should also read this article on authorization models).

If you are able to keep authorization simple and standardised it will definitely pay of in development speed, readability and future maintenance. I have never been fully satisfied with the authorization logic of any systems I've worked on; trade-offs between complexity and flexibility have to be made.

5. Deserialize payload #

One of the main advantages of a dynamically typed language is you don't have to waste your time typecasting when parsing JSON. So if you are a Ruby, JavaScript, Python or PHP developer you can simply skip this section and feel smug.

In statically typed languages I've done either of the following:

The latter foregoes much of the static typing goodness hence I generally prefer to statically cast it into a well-defined type.

Usually the framework/language does the heavy lifting but this may cause issues by itself:

These two issues alone have made me give up on two different frameworks; it was just to cumbersome to bend deserialization to my will.

While this section primarily applies to REST/JSON, API's with statically typed messages (e.g. gRPC or XML/XSD) are easier to implement in a statically typed language. One of my worst coding experiences was integrating a (complex) SOAP/XML service in Nodejs... the horror.

6. Request validation #

Server-side request validation can be done in several ways.

The naive approach is to check each field for their associated type and basic requirements "manually". To reduce boilerplate libraries and/or utility functions are used. After all these years I still use this naive approach regularly, particularly for microservices.

A more heavy-duty approach is JSON schema which specifies validation rules like so:

"type": "object",
"properties": {
"title": {
"type": "string",
"minLength": 5,
"maxLength": 40
"content": {
"type": "string"
"status": {
"enum": [ "DRAFT", "PUBLISHED" ]
"required": [ "title", "content", "status" ]

Parsing and validating your object against a JSON schema requires a powerful library but makes for very strict, readable and language-agnostic validation specs. It is part of Swagger/OpenAPI as well. I've used JSON schemas in many projects and it has become one of my favourite tools.

A third approach is to add validation annotations/properties to the deserialisation specification or domain model. Most full-stack frameworks promote this type of validation. For example:

public class Movie
public string Title { get; set; }

public DateTime ReleaseDate { get; set; }

While generally not as powerful as JSON schema or as flexible as custom functions this approach is usually well understood by other developers and don't require additional third-party libraries.

So what about sanitization, for example trimming whitespaces from request fields? As a rule of thumb don't sanitize in the backend but do so in the frontend. I.e. if whitespace isn't allowed make sure your API validation rules don't allow it. Sanitizing in the backend would change client input which is usually unexpected by the users of your API.

Similarly I never translate backend error messages; showing a good error message to the end-user is better left to the client app. SPA's and mobile apps commonly run client-side validation before any request is made; your beautifully i18n backend API responses will go to waste. Similarly error messages are often tailored to the type of app (e.g. a shorter error message on mobile). Also, having full control over i18n in your client app and removing it from the backend greatly simplifies an already complex task.

7. Retrieve domain objects #

Most backend requests require additional data from external sources (db, cache, third-party service, ...) during their processing.

Traditionally your primary dependency was a single database and by using an ORM that resolves relationships automatically there was little to be done further. Do be aware most (if not all) ORMs resolve relationships lazily; I once debugged a slow JPA-based system and it turned out their logic ended up resolving 7 SELECT queries sequentially giving very poor performance. Some eager-fetch instructions fixed the issue.

However, due to the rise of distributed cloud apps and microservices it has become less common your app exclusively interacts with just a single database.

When accessing multiple datasources and services I tend to fetch all data in parallel before doing any real processing. Pre-fetching dependant domain objects significantly reduces your average response time and as a bonus it renders semantic validation a synchronous operation keeping your functions "blue" (read What color is your function for an explanation).

8. Business rules (semantic validation) #

Business rules are validations based on (usually) runtime information retrieved from domain objects. Some examples:

While there may only be a couple business rules initially, the amount and complexity of these rules can become significant over time, particularly in a mature business domain. When practicing Domain-Driven Design these rules are captured within the domain-layer of your application.

Alternative solutions are Business Rule Engines (BREs) and Workflow Engines which provide a configurable management environment that domain experts can use to adjust their business processes on the fly. These systems are configured either through a visual editor or some Domain-Specific Language.

That sounds great but typically these solutions require expert knowledge to operate and reconfigure. Moreover configuration changes are usually poorly tested, let alone covered in automated tests.

Having worked on a BRE & Workflow application and seen several others used in practice my verdict is simple; avoid them for pretty much all your projects. They sound great in principle but the return on investment is very low, if not usually a net loss.

Right now I favour capturing business rule configuration in a headless CMS and programatically process and test these config settings. While not as flexible as a BRE or Workflow engine I found it a more cost-effective way to enable domain experts to adjust parameters while also covering them by automated tests.

9. Side effects #

Except for data-retrieval requests most requests will do stuff like:

When executing multiple side effects you should carefully consider the order and transactionality of those effects. A relational database can guarantee you an all-or-nothing transaction but most other side effects cannot.

I often end up asking the question; "How bad is it if this fails?"

In an advanced application framework you might have built-in transactions across databases, requests and queues rolling back everything if something failed. But this is rare. Usually you don't have any guarantees and such mechanisms are complex to build yourself (and never 100% fail-safe). In these scenarios I tend to execute side effects synchronously in the following order:

  1. Temporary side effects. These effects will get cleaned-up or become irrelevant automatically over time. Verification tokens and cache data are examples. When failing the service returns an error because the primary side effect hasn't taken place yet.
  2. Primary side effect. This is the most important side effect and cannot be recovered from when failing. The service simply returns an error.
  3. Secondary side effects. These side effects are very difficult to recover from when failing, usually requiring technical intervention to resolve. This I'll usually implement by either rolling back the primary side effect (if at all possible at that point), put my faith in an extremely high-available queues; or accept it as very unlikely to fail and simply log the error. At a minimum I'll log an error and sometimes return an error response.
  4. Recoverable side effects. These are recoverable effects through good UX, automated recovery mechanisms or have only limited impact when they fail. These effects never affect the response at all; I'll log an error but the eror doesn't bubble up).

In practice I tend to avoid secondary side effects as much as possible. This mainly because I do not want to invest time in developing and testing the complex mechanisms required for secondary side effects to work properly, let alone I'll trust those mechanisms in all possible scenarios.

For example; a new user makes a POST /users-request which executes a database transaction (the primary side effect) and sends a verification email through a third-party email service afterwards. That verification email is either a:

10. Response #

First a word of caution: your response is seldom a 1-to-1 mapping of your domain, database or third-party service. It is not uncommon for dynamic languages in particular to passthrough an object directly as the response. While sometimes this makes sense, think carefully before you do. Some fields may not be optimized for your clients, some fields should be hidden (e.g. password hashes), and others may not be consistenly named. The "R" in REST stands for Representational; i.e. it represents but is not necessarily identical to the server state.

Having said that, my main concern with API design is backwards compatibility, even when designing a completely new API. It is safe to assume any status code, error message, typo... any behaviour of a service eventually some client will rely upon when in production.

While backwards-incompatible changes are manageable through incrementing the API-version they too are fraught with problems, primarily because in practice it takes a lot of overhead and time to update all clients to this new API version. It is not uncommon for a third-party client to take years before getting upgraded.

Therefore I usually try to implement changes within an existing API to save a lot of overhead.

Changes that are usually safe are:

Changes that are sometimes safe are:

Changes that are usually unsafe are:

Given it is so difficult to guarantee backwards-compatibility it pays off to invest extra time in your initial API design. This usually involves a lot of research and collaboration. I usually end up googling similar API's on the web and compare them with my own design. One rule of thumb: add as few fields as possible to your response and only incrementally add new ones when the need arises. While annoying and slow, the reverse is usually much more painful.

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